It doesn't matter whether you're running Windows via Boot Camp or in OS X, the computer will shut down if an over temp occurs. Next time you post please provide information about your Mac and which version of OS X you're running.
Prolonged overheating of any electronic device can cause damage. However, your MacBook has built in temperature sensors which will shut it down before any damage can occur.
Also.... you're attempting to run Windows 7 with only 2 GB of memory in your MacBook. Your machine can take up to 6 GB of memory. You should be running at least 4 GB in that machine. Of course if you have Windows 7 32 bit installed, it can only use 3.3 GB of memory but even that will help.