OSX Lion Server Part 03 – Getting the Router Prepared

OSX Lion Server part 03 – Getting the Router Prepared

We’ve dealt with the types of server installs in part 01 of this series and the network set-up we need to have in place in part 02. Before we jump in and actually install the software there is one final stage we have to look at before we continue, and that’s router set-up.

Your network router is set-up to allow common tasks like web browsing and mail traffic to come in and out. However, many potential services are blocked by default. This is a good thing since it shields your network from potential intrusion.

So in order to let some of OS X Lion Server’s services pass to and fro we need to set-up something called port forwarding which is opening up ports on the router to allow more services to work.

Apple Airport Extreme or Not.

If this whole idea of port forwarding fills you with dread, then you might consider replacing your current router with Apple’s Airport Extreme router. Why? Well, if Lion Server detects an Airport Extreme on your network, it will set-up port forwarding for you automatically.

So if you are considering one of these then this port forwarding part is easy, just let the server installation do all the work for you.

You can see below how the ports are opened by the server when you access an Airport Extreme base station through Airport utility (see below).

Airport utility and the Apple routers on your network

When you select a router, you can see ports opened automatically by Lion server

Port Forwarding for Other Routers

Most routers on the market use a web interface to change their settings, so each manufacturer will have a slightly different interface and approach to changing these settings.

There are guides to configure port forwarding for most of the main routers on the market over at the portforward.com website, so check out that site to find a comprehensive guide for your make of router (when you select your router you will see a series of links to specific ports but you might want to find the link to the Default Guide for a general help page). If you don’t find your router’s link, go to the router manufacturers site and seek out the guide to your particular router there. If all else fails, feel free to ask a question on the forums.

Common Ports to Open up for OSX X Lion Server.

What ports you need to open depends on what sorts of services you want to cross your network, so take a look at the table below and decide what services you may need. Don’t worry about not opening up some services at this stage since this port forwarding task is one of the things you can do as you start configuring Lion Server.

Take a look at the table below to see the main ports used by Lion Server’s services.

Service Port number Protocol
Address Book Server
Address Book Server 8800 TCP
Address Book Server SSL 8843 TCP
File Sharing
File sharing (Apple AFP) 548 TCP
File sharing (Windows SMB/CIFS)  161 TCP
iCal Server
iCal Server 8008 TCP
iCal Server using SSL 8443 TCP
iChat Server
iChat Server 5222 TCP
iChat Server using SSL 5223 TCP
iChat Server, server-to-server connection  5269 TCP
iChat Server’s file transfer proxy 7777 TCP
Mail Server
Mail: IMAP 143 TCP
Mail: IMAP using SSL 993 TCP
Mail: POP3 110 TCP, UDP
Mail: POP3 using SSL 995 TCP, UDP
Mail: SMTP legacy SSL submission  465 TCP
Mail: SMTP standard 25 TCP, UDP
Mail: SMTP submission 587 TCP
Remote connection
Remote connection SSH (Secure Shell) * 22 TCP, UDP
Remote Management (Apple Remote Desktop) 3283, 5900 TCP, UDP
Web service
Web service HTTP 80 or 8080 TCP
Web service HTTPS (secure web service via SSL) 443 TCP
Screen sharing
Screen sharing VNC 5900 TCP
Virtual Private network
VPN L2TP ISAKMP/IKE 500 UDP
VPN L2TP 1701 UDP
VPN L2TP IKE NAT Traversal 4500 UDP
VPN L2TP ESP (firewall only) IP protocol 50 n/a
VPN PPTP  1723 TCP

* The only  suggestion I have is that you not enable SSH unless you have a real need for it. Its a favorite port for real techies (it’s used for terminal access to remote computers – if you are interested), but SSH is also a magnet to hackers. You may find that your server logs fill up with attempted SSH intrusions if you enable that port.

Here’s a screen grab of the ports I have opened on the Netgear router that I have on my network.

Netgear router– outbound ports for server services

Netgear router– inbound ports for server services

So, with the router set-up to pass through all the services your server is going to use, we are now ready to actually download and install Lion Server. Notice all inbound services are going to a local address of 192.168.99.200 – that’s the manually assigned IP address we are going to give the machine that we’ll install Lion Server on in the next article.

I told you we would get there in the end.

Note about VPN (Virtual Private networks)

There’s another step to the router set-up if you are going to enable the VPN service, so if you are going to use this then keep following this series as we will cover the VPN service in the next article.

2 Comments: 

  1. jaked.902's Avatar
    Apple's docs say address book ports are the same as iCal - 8008 and 8443 for SSL. Typo by you or Apple?

    Lion Server: Services and ports

    Jake
  2. louishen's Avatar
    I'll take a look at that, seems to have changed since Snow Leopard, but as long as that port is open, both services should be working
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